CELT DIASPHORA IN ENGLAND

Diaspora is one term in Postcolonial Theory. Diaspora means the voluntary or enforced migration of peoples from their native homelands.  Diaspora literature is often concerned with questions of maintaining or altering identity, language, and culture while in another culture or country.

The settlers from mainland Europe continued to flow into the British Isles, there was greater contact between Britain and the Continent. About 500 BC, the new kind of culture was spreading across lowland Britain called Celts. The Celtic tribes probably came from central Europe and moved outwards into parts of Italy, France and Spain as well as Britain. This tribes slowly developed into a larger tribes and ruled by a King or Queen. In other words for many year the Celtic tribe civilization was developed. The Celtic language had been spoken at length.

Back to England In 1066, to the Norman conquest. In this reign era  the development of English language started. Norman was giving land to the knights in the existing Celtic territory . English language has been exist and used for communication at that time. But by interaction for lengt years between people, the language itself developed by the people. There are so many people from different origin causing the  pronounciation of a word or phoneme were different. This process was happened in every interaction whether political interaction or economic. The combined ethno-linguistic and political implications of such circumstances help to explain the accelerated spread of the English language overseas (Christina Julios. 2008, 24).  From Contemporary British Identity, Christina Julios explained the spread of the language,

As a language, English is constantly evolving, and in this evolutionary process its contact with other tongues has been an important driving force for change. Throughout its remarkable history, the English language has always borrowed freely: firstly, from Celtic and Latin, later from Scandinavian and Norman French, and subsequently from the various languages spoken in the many British colonies. This extraordinary ability to absorb and incorporate different linguistic influences undoubtedly contributed to the rapid spread of English during Britain’s colonisation period.

 

Celtic is a strong tribe, developed, and well-organized so they could giving influence to the others. As we know the strongest always have the big control of things, so they also did the same. Nowadays the impact of celt diaspora can clearly see in the English words. The words are the combination of Italy, France and Spain.

 

References :

Julios, Christina. 2008. Contemporary British Identity English Language, Migrants and Public Discourse. USA: ashgate

Barber, Nicola and Andy Langley. 1999. British History Encyclopedia. Spain : Parragon

Key terms in Post Colonia Theory
http://www3.dbu.edu/mitchell/postcold.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The Cultural Effects of Christening the Native-Americans

In 1620 one hundred Puritans boarded the ‘Mayflower’ship bound for the New World, carried 102 passengers from England. They belonged to a group of English Protestants called Puritans who disagreed with many of the practices of the Church of England. They explored the new teritory for starting a new live far from the England rules. And for many centuries this people give the cultural effects such as: The protestant heritage which is contains the important values in life and celebrations such as: Thanksgiving day and Halloween days.

Protestantism has been a powerful force in shaping the values and beliefs in Americans. These values include of self improvement. The protestant believe that the sinners do not need the forgiveness from Priest, what they need are to improve themselves and ask for God’s guidance, forgiveness, and grace. Protestanism has traditionally encouraged a strong and restless desire for self-improvement.

The life styles of Puritans influence the Native American live: the material success, hard work and self discipline. The material success here means that if people who were blessed by God might be recognized in the world by the material success. The loyalty to The God came first then the blessed from God later. However the Puritan never encouraged the idea of gaining wealth without hard work and self-discipline. Many scholar believe that the emphasis on these two values make an important contribution to the industrial growth of the United States. They also believed that the hard work and self discipline was the holy characteristic blessed by God. Those are the life styles of puritan which has had influence many group in The United States.

Volunteerism and Humanitarianism are the ideas from Puritan to improving oneself by helping others. The motive of volunteerism and humanitarianism are strong: the Americans believe that they should devote part of their time and wealth to religious or humanitarian causes in order to be acceptable in the eyes of God and in the eyes of other Americans.

Giving thank to God had always been a part of the Puritans. They were giving thanks for the successful harvest, for God blessed and for the fortune. Giving thanks always the primary reason for the celebration. As we know that Puritans came from The England, in England itself the celebration were rewarded for a bountiful harvest after a year of sickness and scarcity, the Pilgrims gave thanks to God and celebrated His bounty in the Harvest Home tradition with feasting and sport (recreation).

There is still controversial and many assessment about the history of Halloween celebration. But from all about the assessment, the interesting one is about the date related to the religions belief. Literally, it is the eve of All Saints ’ Day, November 1 in the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. In the evening of October 31, the Christian feast the following day. The meaning of Halloween itself is: Halloween as a rite of seasonal passage and as a rite of passage of the life cycle.
However, Puritans have been giving the various values, beliefs and culture for America society until this day.

Sources:
The First Step to American Studies compiled by Sri Herminingrum
______. (2003-2014) ThanksgivingHistory http://www.plimoth.org/learn/MRL/read/thanksgiving-history
______. (2006). The Pilgrim Father.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/The-Pilgrim-Fathers.htm
British History Encyclopedia

Elizabeth I’s Efforts to Solve the Problem of Religious Intolerance in England at That Time

Elizabeth should make a careful decision in that time; Elizabeth tried to control the religion’s hard-liners to minimize the conflict. Another reason for treading carefully was because every decision could ignite the war between countries. Protestant leaders in northern Germany expected Elizabeth to take up the cause of the Protestants. In other hand, Elizabeth was also very aware that two very powerful Catholic states (Frances and Spain) were waiting for the Queen’s decision. Every decisions that Elizabeth did at that time will be causing the angger of the Protestant believer and Catholic believer. The final religious settlement recognized royal supremacy within the church. The Act of Supremacy made Elizabeth Supreme Governor of the Church and church officials were required to take an oath of obedience to Elizabeth. This supreme made the position of Queen Elizabeth was very strong.

In 1559, Elizabeth framed new religious laws with the help of her chief minister, William Cecil. This known as the religious settlement of England then establishing England as a Protestant Country. The church and priest had to use the English Prayer Book and Queen Elizabeth also remove all the superstition in the church:

  • That the minister in a parish church faced the congregation when he read the Common Prayer and gave divine service.
  • That during baptism, a minister should dispense with the making of the cross on a child’s forehead as this was mere superstition.
  • That those who were unable to kneel during communion should not have to do so if they were aged or sick.
  • No minister should wear anything other than a plain surplice during a service.

The protestant became popular in England whereas Catholics became minority.  As the Supreme of Governor of the Church, Elizabeth gave tolerant to every religion in England as long as not out of the rules. Elizabeth practiced religious clemency and tolerance, which was an attempt to harmony the state of affairs between the Roman Catholics and the Church of England.

The Protestant, The Catholic or The Puritans (the radical protestant) have their own church and no one have right to disturb any religions and belief.

SOURCES :

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/elizabeth_church_england.htm

http://www.elizabethi.org/contents/elizabethanchurch/queenandchurch.html

British History Encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Supremacy_1558