The History of Ireland’s/Scotland’s Rebellion against British Government

 

As the beginning, it is important to inform that the inhabitants of Scotland is Protestant and Ireland is Catholic. Most of the rebellions was happened  because of the different religions belief, The English at that time indeed prosecute people to follow the Anglican Church. It is not surprising that the Irish grew angry with English bullying, and frequently rose in rebellion. There were major revolts in 1569, 1571, 1576 and 1579.  Hugh O’Neill, the Earl of Tyrone the supporter of Catholic Europe who has a strong politic power in the stage of Europe. In 1597 came the inevitable English backlash with major campaigns’ against Ulster, but a year later, at the Yellow Ford on the Backwater River, Hugh Maguire led the Irish cavalry in a stunning victory against the English. With this rout the Rebellion caught fire throughout Ireland (Rebellion and the Nine Years War, p.95). O’Neill  supported the Ireland rebellion. The English army took its revenge by attacking and killing the inhabitants of Drogheda and Wexford. At that time many Irish dead in English’s army hands. The end of all rebellion and the Ulster Gaeleic was on Christmas Eve 1601. O’Neill surrendered to the English at Mellifont in March,1603.  For the first time, England ruled the whole of Ireland. From the August 1649 Oliver Cromwell seized Ireland.

Charles I was the king of Scotland and also the king of England. Charles I was forcing the Scots to accept a new prayer book which is used in the Church of England. The Scots was getting angry to the King and making a declaration called the National Covenant. The king decided to against the rebellious of Scotland.

Early in 1651, Charles was crowned Charles II of Scotland at Scone Castle. Following his coronation as king of the Scots, Charles II raised a Scottish army and invaded England.he was gathering the army to fight the Cromwell, but his army was defeated at Wonchester in September 1651. Charles II barely escaped with his life and he was hunted by the roundheds for 40 days before he managed to escaped to France and safety. When the relationship of England and France getting well, Charless II move to the another place, he had became exile for 15 years and was returning to the Kingdom after Richard Cromwell was not capable of running the Country.

The terms of restoration were worked out between 1660 and 1662. The New Model Army was disbanded and sent home.     Both Scotland and Ireland were now unwillingly part of a United Britain under the leadership of Cromwell.

References :

Barber, Nicola and andy Langley. 1999. British History Encyclopedia. Spain : Parragon

_________.Civil war and revolution. online
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/timeline/civilwars_timeline_noflash.shtml

_______.  Rebellion and the nine years war. online
www.enniskillencastle.co.uk/media

http://www.localhistories.org/irehist.html

 

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The Cultural Effects of Christening the Native-Americans

In 1620 one hundred Puritans boarded the ‘Mayflower’ship bound for the New World, carried 102 passengers from England. They belonged to a group of English Protestants called Puritans who disagreed with many of the practices of the Church of England. They explored the new teritory for starting a new live far from the England rules. And for many centuries this people give the cultural effects such as: The protestant heritage which is contains the important values in life and celebrations such as: Thanksgiving day and Halloween days.

Protestantism has been a powerful force in shaping the values and beliefs in Americans. These values include of self improvement. The protestant believe that the sinners do not need the forgiveness from Priest, what they need are to improve themselves and ask for God’s guidance, forgiveness, and grace. Protestanism has traditionally encouraged a strong and restless desire for self-improvement.

The life styles of Puritans influence the Native American live: the material success, hard work and self discipline. The material success here means that if people who were blessed by God might be recognized in the world by the material success. The loyalty to The God came first then the blessed from God later. However the Puritan never encouraged the idea of gaining wealth without hard work and self-discipline. Many scholar believe that the emphasis on these two values make an important contribution to the industrial growth of the United States. They also believed that the hard work and self discipline was the holy characteristic blessed by God. Those are the life styles of puritan which has had influence many group in The United States.

Volunteerism and Humanitarianism are the ideas from Puritan to improving oneself by helping others. The motive of volunteerism and humanitarianism are strong: the Americans believe that they should devote part of their time and wealth to religious or humanitarian causes in order to be acceptable in the eyes of God and in the eyes of other Americans.

Giving thank to God had always been a part of the Puritans. They were giving thanks for the successful harvest, for God blessed and for the fortune. Giving thanks always the primary reason for the celebration. As we know that Puritans came from The England, in England itself the celebration were rewarded for a bountiful harvest after a year of sickness and scarcity, the Pilgrims gave thanks to God and celebrated His bounty in the Harvest Home tradition with feasting and sport (recreation).

There is still controversial and many assessment about the history of Halloween celebration. But from all about the assessment, the interesting one is about the date related to the religions belief. Literally, it is the eve of All Saints ’ Day, November 1 in the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. In the evening of October 31, the Christian feast the following day. The meaning of Halloween itself is: Halloween as a rite of seasonal passage and as a rite of passage of the life cycle.
However, Puritans have been giving the various values, beliefs and culture for America society until this day.

Sources:
The First Step to American Studies compiled by Sri Herminingrum
______. (2003-2014) ThanksgivingHistory http://www.plimoth.org/learn/MRL/read/thanksgiving-history
______. (2006). The Pilgrim Father.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/The-Pilgrim-Fathers.htm
British History Encyclopedia

Elizabeth I’s Efforts to Solve the Problem of Religious Intolerance in England at That Time

Elizabeth should make a careful decision in that time; Elizabeth tried to control the religion’s hard-liners to minimize the conflict. Another reason for treading carefully was because every decision could ignite the war between countries. Protestant leaders in northern Germany expected Elizabeth to take up the cause of the Protestants. In other hand, Elizabeth was also very aware that two very powerful Catholic states (Frances and Spain) were waiting for the Queen’s decision. Every decisions that Elizabeth did at that time will be causing the angger of the Protestant believer and Catholic believer. The final religious settlement recognized royal supremacy within the church. The Act of Supremacy made Elizabeth Supreme Governor of the Church and church officials were required to take an oath of obedience to Elizabeth. This supreme made the position of Queen Elizabeth was very strong.

In 1559, Elizabeth framed new religious laws with the help of her chief minister, William Cecil. This known as the religious settlement of England then establishing England as a Protestant Country. The church and priest had to use the English Prayer Book and Queen Elizabeth also remove all the superstition in the church:

  • That the minister in a parish church faced the congregation when he read the Common Prayer and gave divine service.
  • That during baptism, a minister should dispense with the making of the cross on a child’s forehead as this was mere superstition.
  • That those who were unable to kneel during communion should not have to do so if they were aged or sick.
  • No minister should wear anything other than a plain surplice during a service.

The protestant became popular in England whereas Catholics became minority.  As the Supreme of Governor of the Church, Elizabeth gave tolerant to every religion in England as long as not out of the rules. Elizabeth practiced religious clemency and tolerance, which was an attempt to harmony the state of affairs between the Roman Catholics and the Church of England.

The Protestant, The Catholic or The Puritans (the radical protestant) have their own church and no one have right to disturb any religions and belief.

SOURCES :

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/elizabeth_church_england.htm

http://www.elizabethi.org/contents/elizabethanchurch/queenandchurch.html

British History Encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Act_of_Supremacy_1558