The History of Ireland’s/Scotland’s Rebellion against British Government


As the beginning, it is important to inform that the inhabitants of Scotland is Protestant and Ireland is Catholic. Most of the rebellions was happened  because of the different religions belief, The English at that time indeed prosecute people to follow the Anglican Church. It is not surprising that the Irish grew angry with English bullying, and frequently rose in rebellion. There were major revolts in 1569, 1571, 1576 and 1579.  Hugh O’Neill, the Earl of Tyrone the supporter of Catholic Europe who has a strong politic power in the stage of Europe. In 1597 came the inevitable English backlash with major campaigns’ against Ulster, but a year later, at the Yellow Ford on the Backwater River, Hugh Maguire led the Irish cavalry in a stunning victory against the English. With this rout the Rebellion caught fire throughout Ireland (Rebellion and the Nine Years War, p.95). O’Neill  supported the Ireland rebellion. The English army took its revenge by attacking and killing the inhabitants of Drogheda and Wexford. At that time many Irish dead in English’s army hands. The end of all rebellion and the Ulster Gaeleic was on Christmas Eve 1601. O’Neill surrendered to the English at Mellifont in March,1603.  For the first time, England ruled the whole of Ireland. From the August 1649 Oliver Cromwell seized Ireland.

Charles I was the king of Scotland and also the king of England. Charles I was forcing the Scots to accept a new prayer book which is used in the Church of England. The Scots was getting angry to the King and making a declaration called the National Covenant. The king decided to against the rebellious of Scotland.

Early in 1651, Charles was crowned Charles II of Scotland at Scone Castle. Following his coronation as king of the Scots, Charles II raised a Scottish army and invaded England.he was gathering the army to fight the Cromwell, but his army was defeated at Wonchester in September 1651. Charles II barely escaped with his life and he was hunted by the roundheds for 40 days before he managed to escaped to France and safety. When the relationship of England and France getting well, Charless II move to the another place, he had became exile for 15 years and was returning to the Kingdom after Richard Cromwell was not capable of running the Country.

The terms of restoration were worked out between 1660 and 1662. The New Model Army was disbanded and sent home.     Both Scotland and Ireland were now unwillingly part of a United Britain under the leadership of Cromwell.

References :

Barber, Nicola and andy Langley. 1999. British History Encyclopedia. Spain : Parragon

_________.Civil war and revolution. online

_______.  Rebellion and the nine years war. online